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  The  infestation  of  trees  by  Marchalina hellenica

   Save  our  trees  from  getting  desiccated  without  using  pesticides 

  The  problem of  the  pine  trees  being covered in  the secretion of a harmful    insect  that  belongs  to  Margarodidae  family  and  is  called  Marchalina    hellenica  has  become very  common in  a lot of  areas  in  our  country.   

                                           Scientific  Classification  of  Marchalina  hellenica

             

      The  dendroctonus  species  of  Marchalina hellenica   has  always been  existed in  Greece  but its  population  density  was low. However, ten years  ago  the Ministry of  Agriculture funded  the beekeeping  associations  to deliberately infest  the  pine  trees with the scientific  parasite  with  the  aim  to  boost honey production. The plan  backfired. Marchalina  hellenica  population  multiplied dramatically. 

Marchalina  hellenica  lives  by sucking  the  sap  of  pine  trees. It bores  through  the  outer bark  and  feeds  within  the  soft  inner  bark  destroying in  this  way  the  sap of  the  tree. Eavh  tree  is  infested  by  millions  of  insects  which  cause  the  disruption  of  the  water  flow  to  the  crown, thus  killing  the  tree. 

                  

    It  was  until  recently  that  this  type  of  parasite  was still  being  regarded  as  ''beneficial'' by  the  Greek  state  and  therefore  nothing had  been  done  to  eradicate  it. However, due  to the  pressure exerted  by  the  citizens  and  due  to  the large  number  of  dead  pine  trees  in  Attica,  the  Greek  authorities  were  forced  to  ask  from  scientists  and  companies  specialized  in  pest  control  to  find  a  solution. Among others, NOVAGRICA  HELLAS S.A. - a leading company  in  the  field  of  agricultural  research  due  to  the  production  and  trading  of  pesticides which  are  environmentally  friendly- has  played  a  major  role  in  the  protection of  pine  trees  from  pests.  The  company's staff-scientists  known world  wide-(Dr Mazomenos) take  part  in  leading  projects  for  the  development  of  new  ecological  methods  in  the  combat  of  harmful  pests  and  other  parasites. 

    Not  too  long  ago, NOVAGRICA  HELLAS S.A. created  a  new  product (TETRASTOP®), made  of  natural  substances, in  order to  slow down the  acarids  and  hemiptera population  growth. In  2004  this  product  was  examined  by  the  researhers of  the  Benakio  Phytological  Society (BPS) during  experiments  against   Marchalina hellenica  and  the  results  were  satisfactory.    

                                          

   Effectiveness: In  March  2005  the  product  was  tested  on  a  clump  of  pine  trees  at  the  area  around  Demokritos  Institute  along  with  the  cooperation of  NCRS  '' DEMOKRITOS ''  and  on  pine  trees  in  Peania. The  project  was  carried  out  by  the  agricultiralist  Sotiris  Nikologiannis  and  the  student  of  Agriculture  at  the  University  of  Athens, Natasa  Nikologianni  under  the  supervision  of  biologist  Nikos  Babilis. The  testing  was  carried  out  during  the  last  stage  of  development  of   larvae  and  mature  female insects. Measurings showed that  the  product  is  99%  effective and  it  must  be  pointed  out  that  other  pests  were  not  affected.  

   In  May  2005, after the  turmoil  concerning  the  pine  tree  disease, the  BPS  with  the  encouragement of  the  Ministry of  Agriculture, carried out  experimental  tests on  pine  trees in  three areas  of  Attica  using  the  specific  product  along  with  other plant  protection  products. During  this  project (TETRASTOP®), products from  other  companies were also used   TRIONA, HELLONA, SAF-T-CIDE (cottonseed oil), APLLAUD, ADMIRAL, INSEGAR (insect  growth regulator), SAVONA (potassium salts of  fatty acids), RVP (mixture  of  terpenoids). 

          At  the  same  time, the  testing was  repeated  in  the  broader area of  Demokritos  Institute. Also, the ''Forest  Friends  Association  of  Athens'', provided  part  of  its private  space in  Vouliagmeni  where  further testings  were  carried  out, while geopoNikologianni  carried  out  a  second  testing  of TETRASTOP®  product  in  the  area  of   Peania. All  the  testings  were  conducted during the  first larval  stage (L1), where it  was  found  that   Marchalina hellenica's population was estimated at  hundreds of  thousands in  each  tree. The  results from the experiments  which were  handed  in  by  the  BPS  to  the  Ministry of  Agriculture  certify   that  TETRASTOP®    is   99%  effective. 

The   NCRS  ''DEMOKRITOS''  adopts  the  TETRASTOP®  pest  control :

   After  the  last  testing during which  the  effectiveness of  the  product  was  certified,  the  NCRS  '' DEMOCRITOS '' launched  a  new training  programme  to  save   the  trees in  the  area  around  the  institute  using  TETRASTOP® .

                       

The  use   of  other  pesticides  is  uneccessary :The  use  of  other  pesticides  is  unecessary  given  the  high levels  of  effectiveness  of  the  product  and  given the  fact  that  the  spraying will  be done  in  the  right  time.

Natural product : TETRASTOP®  contains drastic substances (mixture of  ethereal  oils) that  can  also  be  found  in  food  or  substances  that  are  used  by  the  food  industry. The former  is  non-toxic  to  humans  or  other mammals  as long  as  it  is  used  in  designated  quantities.

It  is  not  toxic to  bees  and it  does not  affect  harmless  insects: There have not  been  observed  any  worth  mentioning  negative  effects on  bees  and  other  harmless  insects.  

       

The  pictures were  taken  right  after  the  spraying  had  been  done.The density  of  the  different  kinds  of  ants, vinegar  flies(drosophila), small  insects and  spiders  was  the  same  in  both  the  sprayed  trees  and   unsprayed  trees. Parts  of  the  inner  bark  of  the  trees  were  removed and  microscopic observations, which  were  carried  out  the  next  day,  showed  the  existance  of microscopic  organisms  and  acarids. 

Natural  enemies: TETRASTOP®   does  not affect  the  natural  enemies of Marchalina hellenica . A  few  days  after  the  spraying  an  increased  number of  Chrysoperla  eggs  was  observed  on  the  sprayed  tree  bark. 

   

  Chrysoperla,  during  the  laval  stage, are  active  predators and  are  regarded  as  beneficial  insects. They usually  leave  their  eggs  on  the  leaves of  the tree and  the  stems  of  plants  but  rarely on  the  tree  barks. Initial  observations  showed  that  there  was  a  significant  number  of  Chrysoperla  on  sprayed  trees  eggs (about 30  eggs  in  every  30x30cm)  contrary  to  unsprayed  trees where  nothing  was  found. There  is  a strong  possibility  that  Chrysoperla  are  attracted  by  the  substance(s)  contained  in   TETRASTOP®  .

                                   

There  are  no worth  mentioning  negative  effects of  the  product  neither on the eggs nor on  the  Chrysoperla  larrvae. A  week  right  after  the  spraying, larvae  at  different  developmental  stages  was  observed  on  the  sprayed  bark  trees. Some  of  it  was  transferred  to  the  Chemical  Ecology  and  Natural  Products laboratory  at  the  biology  institute on  NCRS "DEMOKRITOS"  and  was preserved  in  food  cylinders. They  were  fed  on  Marchalina hellenica  larvae (L1). The  following  pictures were  taken  in  the  laboratory through  the  microscope. 

           

    In  addition, the  parasitic  insect  Neoleokopis kartliana  remained  unaffected.  Neoleokopis kartliana  is   a  significant  predator  of   Marchalina hellenica   and in  the  case  of  a  mild  infestasion  of  the  tree  the  former's  population  remains  stable (almost  at  the  same  level  as  it  used  to  be  before  the  deliberate  and  uncontrollable  infestation  of  pine  trees  with Marchalina hellenica ). 

                                              TETRASTOP® 

                                            100%   efficient 

                        The  use  of  other  pesticides  is  unecessary 

                                   A  (natural)  ecological  product

               Non - toxic  to  humans,  bees  and  other  beneficial  insects 

     It  can  be  used  in  the  garden, outdoor  places    

Pleasant  odor,  good  value  for  money

 

   For  further  information on  the  product  (TETRASTOP®) and  its  purchase  come  to  us !  

   At the last meeting of the Council of Agricultural Medicines in the end of March it was decided to give authorisation in plant - protection product TETRASTOP® against Marchalina hellenica. The recommended dose that was decided by the participating scientists of the Council of Agricultural Medicines is 200cm3 /100L water. Also the Council of Agricultural Medicines has decided to start the sprayings in June of 2008.

  The decision of Approval - Disposal of TETRASTOP®
was signed by the Minister of Rural Development and Food. The number of the final approval is 9055. At the plant-protection product TETRASTOP® granted final approval, with the 122914/13.12.2006 decision of the Minister of Rural Development and Food, on use in pines at urban and suburban regions for the confrontation of the insect Marchalina hellenica.

Number Registry of approval: 117589 of 9th /4/2008

      At TETRASTOP® granted final approval of disposal in the market        No 9055/13-12-2006, as plant-protection product, for the confrontation of Tetranychous (Tetranychus pheromone). The decision of Hellenic Ministry of Rural Development and Food is No. 122914

                          Exclusive    Disposal :

Tel: 0030 210 6645060, 0030 210 6642060, Fax : 0030 210 6645560, www.geoponiko.gr, email : info@geopon.gr


 4 Ioannou Metaxa, 19002 Peania, Greece, Tel : 0030 210 6642060, Fax : 0030 210 6645560, info@geopon.gr

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